This record, dating back tobelongs to the Venice State Archive where most of the documents produced by the institutional bodies of the Venetian Republic are kept and it concern the acceptance of a bequest left by Giovanni dalle Boccole to the Dominican friars of the Santi Giovanni e Paolo convent in Venice.
To further confirm his identity, in the long list of clergymen included in the document, we find the names of Benevenuto and Centorio, the same Dominican friars who Marco Polo included in his will the following year.
The discovery of this document has proved of great importance for this project, for at least two reasons. This version was a great success and granted the distribution of the book Europe-wide.
For these reasons, the Dominicans, who were both missionaries and travellers, read the book, transformed it and reused it in their works up to the Modern age.
A new collaboration has been launched on the topic, involving the team coordinated by prof. Eugenio Burgio and dr. Photo caption. News : Italy. Ca' Foscari University of Venice.This record, dating back tobelongs to the Venice State Archive where most of the documents produced by the institutional bodies of the Venetian Republic are kept and it concern the acceptance of a bequest left by Giovanni dalle Boccole to the Dominican friars of the Santi Giovanni e Paolo convent in Venice.
To further confirm his identity, in the long list of clergymen included in the document, we find the names of Benevenuto and Centorio, the same Dominican friars who Marco Polo included in his will the following year. Read more: archaeology news network. New Thomas Cook chief: Greece currently the travel destination with the highest sales. Visit the Greek island in the most impressive list in the world video. Related Stories.
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Washington should stop pretending that Turkey is an ally — Analysis Oct, 11 Marco Poloborn c. The Polos were likely shrewd, alert, and courageous; they traded with the Middle East and acquired considerable wealth and prestige.
Marco Polo was 17 or 18 when he began his journey from Venice to the farthest reaches of the Mongol empire.
The wealth of new geographic information recorded by Polo was widely used in the late 15th and the 16th centuries, during the age of the great European voyages of discovery and conquest. He escorted a Mongol princess, with his father and uncle, by sea to Hormuz, and by land to Khorasan, during his return voyage to Venice. The family had traded with the Middle East for a long time, acquiring considerable wealth and prestige. Although it is uncertain if the Polos were of the nobility, the matter was of little importance in Venicea city of republican and mercantile traditions.
The family appears to have been shrewd, alert, and courageous; about they foresaw a political change in Constantinople e. He was age 15 or 16 when his father and uncle returned to meet him and learned that the pope, Clement IVhad recently died.
The Polos had been on the road for only a few days when they heard that their friend Teobaldo had been elected pope as Gregory X. Returning to Acre, they were given proper credentials, and two friars were assigned to accompany them, though they abandoned the Polos shortly after the expedition resumed.
There the Polos decided not to risk a sea passage to India and beyond but to proceed overland to the Mongol capital.How to reduce harmonics in power system
Marco suggests that they remained there for a year; detained, perhaps, by illness possibly malaria that was cured by the benign climate of the district. It is also believed that Marco visited territories to the south other parts of Afghanistan, Kafiristan in the Hindu KushChitral in what is now Pakistan, and perhaps Kashmir during this period.
It is, however, difficult to establish which districts he traversed and which he may have described from information gathered en route. Before reaching Shazhou, the Polos had traveled primarily among Muslim peoples, though they also encountered Nestorian ChristiansBuddhistsManichaeansand Zoroastrians.
Marco Polo. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Former Lecturer in Japanese, University of Florence. Author of Where Four Worlds Meet and others. See Article History. Top Questions. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.Inthey returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time.
The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, exploring many places along the Silk Road until they reached Cathay China. They were received by the royal court of Kublai Khan, who was impressed by Marco's intelligence and humility. Marco was appointed to serve as Khan's foreign emissary, and he was sent on many diplomatic missions throughout the empire and Southeast Asia, such as in present-day BurmaIndiaIndonesiaSri Lanka and Vietnam.
After leaving the princess, they travelled overland to Constantinople and then to Venicereturning home after 24 years. He was released inbecame a wealthy merchantmarried, and had three children.
He died in and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice. Though he was not the first European to reach China see Europeans in Medieval ChinaMarco Polo was the first to explore some parts of Asia and to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience.
This account of the Orient provided the Europeans with a clear picture of the East's geography and ethnic customs and was the first Western record of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, paper money, and some Asian plants and exotic animals. There is substantial literature based on Polo's writings; he also influenced European cartographyleading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map. Marco Polo was born around in Venicecapital of the Venetian Republic.
Their return to Italy in order to "go to Venice and visit their household" is described in the Travels of Marco Polo as follows: they departed from Acre and went to Negropontand from Negropont they continued their voyage to Venice.
On their arrival there, Messer Nicolas found that his wife was dead and that she had left behind her a son of fifteen years of age, whose name was Marco. His first known ancestor was a great uncleMarco Polo the older from Venice, who lent some money and commanded a ship in Costantinople.
However, he was also nicknamed Milione during his lifetime which in Italian literally means 'Million'. According to the 15th-century humanist Giovanni Battista Ramusiohis fellow citizens awarded him this nickname when he came back to Venice because he kept on saying that Kublai Khan's wealth was counted in millions.
Inhis great-uncle, Marco Polo, borrowed money and commanded a ship in Constantinople. Captured Venetian citizens were blinded,  while many of those who managed to escape perished aboard overloaded refugee ships fleeing to other Venetian colonies in the Aegean Sea.
Almost nothing is known about the childhood of Marco Polo until he was fifteen years old, except that he probably spent part of his childhood in Venice. They sailed to Acre and later rode on their camels to the Persian port Hormuz. During the first stages of the journey, they stayed for a few months in Acre and were able to speak with Archdeacon Tedaldo Visconti of Piacenza. The Polo family, on that occasion, had expressed their regret at the long lack of a pope, because on their previous trip to China they had received a letter from Kublai Khan to the Pope, and had thus had to leave for China disappointed.Mi home security camera 360 not connecting to router
During the trip, however, they received news that after 33 months of vacation, finally, the Conclave had elected the new Pope and that he was exactly the archdeacon of Acre. The three of them hurried to return to the Holy Land, where the new Pope entrusted them with letters for the "Great Khan", inviting him to send his emissaries to Rome. To give more weight to this mission he sent with the Polos, as his legates, two Dominican fathers, Guglielmo of Tripoli and Nicola of Piacenza.
They continued overland until they arrived at Kublai Khan 's place in ShangduChina then known as Cathay. By this time, Marco was 21 years old.
11 Things You May Not Know About Marco Polo
He was sent on many diplomatic missions throughout his empire and in Southeast Asia, such as in present-day IndonesiaSri Lanka and Vietnam  but also entertained the Khan with stories and observations about the lands he saw.
As part of this appointment, Marco travelled extensively inside China, living in the emperor's lands for 17 years. Kublai initially refused several times to let the Polos return to Europe, as he appreciated their company and they became useful to him. They later decided to return to their home.
They returned to Venice inafter 24 years, with many riches and treasures. Marco Polo returned to Venice in with his fortune converted into gemstones. At this time, Venice was at war with the Republic of Genoa. He was probably caught by Genoans in a skirmish inoff the Anatolian coast between Adana and the Gulf of Alexandretta  and not during the battle of Curzola Septemberoff the Dalmatian coast,  a claim which is due to a later tradition 16th century recorded by Giovanni Battista Ramusio.
He spent several months of his imprisonment dictating a detailed account of his travels to a fellow inmate, Rustichello da Pisa who incorporated tales of his own as well as other collected anecdotes and current affairs from China.Bartaman patrika rashifal today in bengali
It depicts the Polos' journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the inner workings of the Far Eastincluding China, India, and Japan. Polo was finally released from captivity in August and returned home to Venice, where his father and uncle in the meantime had purchased a large palazzo in the zone named contrada San Giovanni Crisostomo Corte del Milion. Marco and his uncle Maffeo financed other expeditions, but likely never left Venetian provinces, nor returned to the Silk Road and Asia.Inthree years after he returned from his journey, Polo was captured after leading a Venetian galley into battle against the rival Italian city-state of Genoa.
While in prison he encountered Rustichello of Pisa, a fellow captive who was known as a talented writer of romances. Eager to document his years as a traveler, Polo dictated his life story to Rustichello, who acted as a kind of ghostwriter. By the time of their release inthe two men had completed the book that would make Marco Polo a household name.
Marco Polo may be the most storied Far East traveler, but he certainly was not the first. Other Catholic emissaries would later follow, including William of Rubruck, who traveled east in the s on a quest to convert the Mongols to Christianity. These early missionaries were largely inspired by the myth of Prester John, a legendary king who was believed to rule over a Christian empire in the East.
Polo would later mention the fictional monarch in his book, and even described him as having fought a great battle against the Mongol ruler Genghis Kahn. A few months before Marco Polo was born inhis father Niccolo and uncle Maffeo left Italy on a trading excursion to Asia. The brothers returned to Venice inand it was only then that year-old Marco finally met Niccolo, the father he never knew he had. Although he was essentially a stranger to the elder Polos, Marco joined them when they left on their more extensive second trip in While they originally planned only a brief stay in the Far East, the three men would eventually travel Asia together for more than 20 years.
The Polos were merchants who dealt in rare items like silk, gems and spices, but their extensive travels were more than just a trading mission. Marco, Maffeo and Niccolo were also employed as emissaries for the Mongol emperor Kublai Kahn, whom the elder Polos had met and befriended on an earlier journey east. Young Marco would forge an especially strong bond with the Great Kahn, who later dispatched him to China and Southeast Asia as a tax collector and special messenger.
Thanks to this official passport, the Polos traveled through Asia not merely as wandering merchants, but as honored guests of the Great Kahn himself. After his return from Asia, Marco Polo thoroughly documented his encounters with unfamiliar animals such as elephants, monkeys and crocodiles. One of the first Europeans to glimpse an Asian rhinoceros, Polo thought the horned beasts were unicorns.
Among other things, Marco familiarized many of his readers with the concept of paper money, which only caught on in Europe in the years after his return. Polo also described coal—not widely used in Europe until the 18th century—and may even have introduced eyeglasses to the West.
After enduring decades of travel and surviving several brushes with death, the Polos encountered their biggest hurdles when they tried to return to Italy. Worried that their departure would make him appear weak, the elderly Kublai Kahn initially refused to release his favorite envoys from service.
Marco later wrote that the members of his company were among the only survivors of a deadly sea voyage that claimed hundreds of lives. As the travelers passed through the kingdom of Trebizond, in modern-day Turkey, the local government robbed them of some 4, Byzantine gold coins.
Despite this significant loss, the Polos retained enough of their cargo to arrive home in as wealthy men. According to one account, the Venetians concealed most of their gems by sewing the precious stones into the linings of their coats. Readers had some reason to be skeptical: Polo and his ghostwriter, Rustichello, were prone to exaggeration and flights of fancy. For instance, the famous traveler often fictitiously inserted himself into battle scenes and court intrigues.
While most modern historians still believe the bulk of his book to be factual, others have dismissed it as an outright fabrication and claim that Polo never even made it to China. For his part, Marco never admitted to a single lie.
Tribal groups had soon reclaimed land along the once-prosperous trading route known as the Silk Roadeffectively cutting off a vital artery connecting East and West.
With the land route to China growing increasingly dangerous, few travelers dared set out on wide-ranging journeys for several years. In fact, Polo reportedly never left Venetian territory for the last two decades of his life. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Live TV. This Day In History. History at Home. Marco Polo was not the first European to travel to Asia.Marco Polo was a Venetian explorer known for the book The Travels of Marco Polowhich describes his voyage to and experiences in Asia.
Polo traveled extensively with his family, journeying from Europe to Asia from to and remaining in China for 17 of those years. Aroundhe left China, acting as escort along the way to a Mongol princess who was being sent to Persia. Polo was born inin Venice, Italy. Polo's mother died when he was young, and his father and uncle, successful jewel merchants Niccolo and Maffeo Polo, were in Asia for much of Polo's youth.
Inthe two men returned to Venice and immediately started making plans for their return to Khan's court. During their stay with the leader, Khan had expressed his interest in Christianity and asked the Polo brothers to visit again with priests and a collection of holy water. Khan's Empire, the largest the world had ever seen, was largely a mystery to those living within the borders of the Holy Roman Empire.
A sophisticated culture outside the reaches of the Vatican seemed unfathomable, and yet that's exactly what the Polo brothers described to confounded Venetians when they arrived home. InPolo set out with his father and uncle, Niccolo and Maffeo Polo, for Asia, where they would remain until Unable to recruit the priests that Kublai Khan had requested, they left with only two, who, after getting a taste of the hard journey ahead of them, soon turned back for home. The Polos' journey took place on land, and they were forced to cut through challenging and sometimes harsh territory.
His later memory for the places and cultures he witnessed was remarkable and exceptionally accurate. His account of the Orient, especially, provided the western world with its first clear picture of the East's geography and ethnic customs.
Hardships, of course, came his way. Crossing the Gobi desert, meanwhile, proved long and, at times, arduous. It consists entirely of mountains and sands and valleys. There is nothing at all to eat. The Polos had originally planned to be gone for only a few years. However, they were away from Venice for more than 23 years. There is no evidence outside his famous book that he traveled so far east.
Yet his knowledge of the culture and its customs are hard to dismiss. His later account told of Khan's extensive communication system, which served as the foundation for his rule. Polo's book, in fact, devotes five pages to the elaborate structure, describing how the empire's information highway efficiently and economically covered millions of square miles. Khan's acceptance of the Polos offered the foreigners unparalleled access to his empire.How Marco Polo Changed the World!
Niccolo and Maffeo were granted important positions in the leader's Court. Polo, too, impressed Khan, who thought highly of the young man's abilities as a merchant. Polo's immersion into the Chinese culture resulted in him mastering four languages. He served as governor of a Chinese city. Later, Khan appointed him as an official of the Privy Council.
At one point, he was the tax inspector in the city of Yanzhou. He marveled at the empire's use of paper money, an idea that had failed to reach Europe, and was in awe of its economy and scale of production.
Polo's later stories showed him to be an early anthropologist and ethnographer. His reporting offers little about himself or his own thoughts, but instead gives the reader a dispassionate reporting about a culture he had clearly grown fond of. Finally, after 17 years in Khan's court, the Polos decided it was time to return to Venice.
Their decision was not one that pleased Khan, who'd grown to depend on the men. In the end, he acquiesced to their request with one condition: They escort a Mongol princess to Persia, where she was to marry a Persian prince.Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant believed to have journeyed across Asia at the height of the Mongol Empire. He first set out at age 17 with his father and uncle, traveling overland along what later became known as the Silk Road. Upon reaching China, Marco Polo entered the court of powerful Mongol ruler Kublai Khan, who dispatched him on trips to help administer the realm.Go sky drone
Marco Polo remained abroad for 24 years. Though not the first European to explore China—his father and uncle, among others, had already been there—he became famous for his travels thanks to a popular book he co-authored while languishing in a Genoese prison. Marco Polo was born around into a prosperous merchant family in the Italian city-state of Venice. The two brothers then went to the port city of Soldaia now Sudak, Ukrainewhere they owned a house.
The Byzantine re-conquest of Constantinople inalong with upheavals in the Mongol Empire, may have blocked their way home.
After spending three years in Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan, they were encouraged by a Mongolian embassy to visit Kublai Khangrandson of Genghis Khanwho controlled a huge swath of Asia. Kublai quizzed them on European affairs and decided to send them on a goodwill mission to the pope. At the request of Kublai Khan, they secured some holy oil from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem and then backtracked to Acre to pick up gifts, papal documents and two friars from newly elected Pope Gregory X.
The friars quickly abandoned the expedition, but the Polos continued on, possibly by camel, to the Persian port city of Hormuz. Over the next three years they slowly trekked through deserts, high mountain passes and other rough terrain, meeting people of various religions and cultures along the way. Kublai, who generally relied on foreigners to administer his empire, took Marco Polo into his court, possibly as a tax collector.
A glimpse into the life of Marco Polo
At one point, the Venetian was sent on official business to the port city of Hangzhou then called Quinsaiwhich, like Venice, was built around a series of canals. Marco Polo also purportedly journeyed across inland China and into present-day Myanmar. After many years of seeking a release from service, the Polos finally secured permission from Kublai to escort a young princess to her intended husband Arghun, the Mongol ruler of Persia. In the Polos joined a flotilla of 14 boats that set out from Zaitun now Quanzhou, Chinastopped briefly in Sumatra and then landed in Persia 18 months later, only to find out that Arghun was dead.
He also told partially erroneous self-aggrandizing tales about warfare, commerce, geography, court intrigues and the sexual practices of the people who lived under Mongol rule.
A Genoese-Venetian peace treaty in allowed Marco Polo to return home. He probably never left Venetian territory again. The following year, he married Donata Badoer, with whom he would have three daughters. Not much is known about his golden years except that he continued trading and litigated against a cousin.
Marco Polo died in Januaryhaving helped to inspire a later generation of explorers. Everything we know about him comes from his own text and a few Venetian documents; Asian sources never mentioned him. This lack of hard evidence has caused a small number of skeptics to question whether Marco Polo actually made it to China. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
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